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研究論文  Research Article
page:7﹣44

一方記憶之所的流變與重構: 以法國國立移民歷史城創設為核心的考察
Transformations and Reconstruction of A Lieu de Mémoire: A Study on the creation of la Cité nationale de l’histoire de l’immigration in France

作者
陳瑞樺
Author
Jui-Hua Chen
關鍵詞
移民博物館、民族學博物館、移民再現、記憶之所、時空換喻
Keywords
immigration museum, ethnographic museum, representation of immigration, lieux de mémoire, metonymy between time and space
相關領域
   
摘要

本文以法國國立移民歷史城(CNHI)的設立為基點,回溯其館舍金門宮(Palais de la Porte Dorée)從1931年建造以來所經歷的定位轉變,並將此一過程與21世紀初法國民族學博物館群的重整聯繫起來考察,以探究位於世界體系中的前殖民國,如何在全球化的脈絡中治理移民課題並重新界定國族認同。博物館是社群關係經過層層轉化之後凝聚而成的表徵;時空換喻:「在界定我群與他者關係時,將地理空間與歷史時間之間進行代換以定義我群與他者關係的理解方式」,則是用來詮釋社群關係轉變的概念。

法國國立移民歷史城的使命在肯認移民並轉換社會大眾看待移民的視角。轉換看待移民的視角,同時也是轉換觀看法國的視野,重新理解法蘭西國族的構成基礎。從而移民博物館所要述說的不只是做為社會史一環的移民史,並且是由移民史為敘事軸線的法國史。

借鑒法國國立移民歷史城的案例,本文區分了「族群博物館」和「移民博物館」的不同。族群博物館是以特定族群的延續與發展為敘事軸,而移民博物館則是以土地為敘事軸,以國家為主要敘事架構,個別族群則在移民敘事下被相對化。然而「移民博物館」的思考基點並非做為民族國家整體表現的國土,而是在不同歷史時期進到這方土地的人。

對移民博物館的討論,其核心正在於認識「移民社會」是什麼。移民博物館體現了全球化時代的自我/他者關係,自我前往遠外成為他者,原本遠外的人變成我群的社會成員。移民,既是自我變成他者,也是他者逐漸變成我群的過程。


Synopsis

The article aims to study how France, a former colonial empire, try to redefine the national identity and to govern the immigration issue in the age of globalization, through the rearrangement of existed ethnographic museums and the creation of the national immigration museum(la Cité nationale de l’histoire de l’immigration, CNHI). Immigration museum and ethnographic museum are analyzed as two kinds of representations of such relationships. The concept created to interpret the transformation of such relationships is “the metonymy between time and space”, which means a way of defining the relationship between self and others through the substitution between time and space.

The mission of CNHI is to recognize immigrants and to change people’s perspective towards them. Changing the perspective towards immigrants results in changing the vision about France. What is intended to be told in the immigration museum is not the immigration history as a part of social history, but the history of France based on the immigration history.

Inspired by the case of CNHI, I differentiate “the ethnic museum” from “the immigration museum”. The narration of the ethnic museum is based on the continuity and the development of a certain ethnic group. In contrast, the narration of the immigration museum bases on the land and the nation is used as the main frame for such narration, so as to relativize each ethnic group in the narration of immigrant nation. Nevertheless, the core concern of the immigration museum is not about the territory of the nation state, but peoples who have come to live in this land in different periods of time.

The key implication of discussing the immigration museum resides in understanding “what is the immigrant society”. The migration museum incarnates the self/other relationships in the age of globalization. The “self” goes abroad and becomes the other, while people from far land become members of our society. Migration is the process in which “self” becomes the other, and the other gradually becomes part of us.

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