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研究議題與紀要  Research Issue & Note
page:211﹣248

文本旅遊的系譜:從日本到台灣的概念轉變及修正
Genealogy of Contents Tourism: The Transformation and Revision of Concept from Japan to Taiwan

作者
江凱斌
Author
Hoi Pan KONG
關鍵詞
文本旅遊、聖地巡禮、媒體朝聖、流行文化、軟實力
Keywords
Contents tourism, Pilgrimage, Media pilgrimage, Popular culture, Soft power
相關領域
   
摘要

自二千年代中期起,日本大眾媒體注意到動漫愛好者到作品取材地的旅遊行為,稱之為「聖地巡禮」;同一時期,日本政府為充分利用國內影視作品的軟實力,提出「文本旅遊」的國策方向;日本學界則挪用「文本旅遊」的概念,發展出一套涵蓋當代資訊社會中,流行文化衍生觀光的概念框架,並意圖推廣至國內外的人類學與社會學界。當中,推廣「文本旅遊」的主要學者山村高淑提出一個三方互動的框架,用以分析當地社會、閱聽人/旅客、文本版權持有者的互動。而山村等學者為了向外推廣「文本旅遊」的概念,將臺灣視為主要的海外案例之一,用以證實該概念能跨地區應用。本文首先從概念的演變上說明「聖地巡禮」與「文本旅遊」在轉化過程中的多重意涵,解釋翻譯選詞的原因,並說明山村框架的價值及缺失。同時希望以哈日現象及日本國際軟實力的討論為基礎,展示臺灣在現行框架中如何被注視,從而突顯理論框架的問題,並透過將臺灣視為主體,為「文本旅遊」提供批判的視角。

Synopsis

Since the mid-2000s, the term “pilgrimage” is adopted by Japanese mass media to describe the touristic phenomena that anime fans visit the site of the story takes place. At the same time, the Japanese government developed a new tourism strategy, “contents tourism,” in order to maximize its soft power generated by Japanese visual culture. Later, Japanese scholars transformed “contents tourism” into a conceptual framework covering the tourism phenomena related the popular culture, and promote it as a general framework in the international academia, in anthropology and sociology in particular. Yamamura Takayoshi, one of the leading theorists of “contents tourism,” proposes a “three parties interactive framework” for scrutinizing the interaction between the local society, the audience/tourist, and the copyright holder. He considers Taiwan as one of the major foreign examples to prove that the framework can be applied internationally. This article serves as a demonstration of the conceptual developments and multiple approaches toward pilgrimage and contents tourism, and to introduce this concept in Chinese. The final part is an attempt to highlight the values, as well as flaws of the framework. Based on the discussion of the “Japan fever” in Taiwan and Japan’s international soft power, I maintain that Taiwan can be a critical site to rethink the concept of “contents tourism”.

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