2016年 春季 22
研究論文  Research Article
頁數:75﹣122
以農之名:臺灣戰後農運的歷史考察
In the Name of the Farmer: A Historical Review of Agrarian Movements in Postwar Taiwan
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作者(中) 陳瑞樺
作者(英) Jui-Hua Chen
關鍵詞(中) 農運、農民運動、土地正義、糧食主權、社區營造、另類全球化
關鍵詞(英) Agrarian movement, Farmer’s movement, Land justice, Food sovereignty, Community reconstruction, Alter-globalization
中文摘要 本文旨在考察臺灣戰後「以農之名」所發起的社會運動,透過比較不同時期農運的原因及訴求來呈現當前農運的意義。本文指出,隨著現代性的演變,農運的關注焦點逐漸從階級轉為環境;從原本對農民生產要素的保障及農業生產利益的分配,轉而關注整體國民的糧食安全及地球的環境存續。在此轉變過程中,土地在1950年代作為生產要素而被爭奪;1970年代開始因為工業污染而出現「環境」的意涵;到了1980年代後期,在臺灣試圖與新自由主義經濟全球化秩序連結的導火線引爆下,農民長期以來累積的不滿情緒,讓階級議題回返成為農運的主要課題,但在此同時,農地被理解為受到黨國體制所控制的人民財產而被要求開放自由買賣。到了2010年前後,在農地持續流失、生態環境劇變的險峻情勢下,土地被當作農民受到政商聯手掠奪的財產而被保衛,但在保障人民財產這項訴求背後,新農運的核心關懷是農地保存及農業重建。重建農業具有根本的重要性,正因為它所影響的不只是農民階級和農業部門,同時也涉及到社會關係的重建與生態環境的回復。然而這並不意味新農運將以普世價值或生態環境之名來掩蓋農民的階級利益,相反地,新農運試圖將普世價值與個殊利益整合,將生態環境與階級利益連結起來思考,以形成對抗發展主義思維及土地開發尋租的力量。
英文摘要 This article aims to review the social movements launched in the name of the farmer in postwar Taiwan, as an attempt to illustrate the connotations of contemporary agrarian movements through historical comparison. By comparing causes and petitions of agrarian movements taking place in different period of times, the article argues that with the transformation of modernity, the focus of agrarian movements gradually shifted from class to environment, from securing factors crucial to the agricultural production and the distribution of agricultural profits to concerns regarding the food safety of their compatriots and the sustainability of the global environment.

In such transitions, the connotation of the land shifted as well. In 1950s, the land was fought over as the essential element of production; in the 1970s, while the industrial pollutions became obvious, the land began to hold the connotation of environment; in the late 1980s, ignited by the government’s attempt to corporate with the neo-liberalistic global economic order, farmers’ anger that has been accumulated for a long time once again made class issue became the main concern of the agrarian movement, while at the same time, farmlands were considered as properties under the control of nation-state and were requested to be allowed to sell without restriction. At around 2010, facing the dire situation of the continuous loss of farmlands and drastic environmental changes, the agrarian movement defended farmlands as properties of farmers that had been despoiled. However, behind the petition of protecting people’s property as their basic right, the core concern of the movement is the preservation of farmland and reconstructing agriculture.

Reconstructing agriculture is of fundamental importance here, since it not only influences the farmer and the agrarian section, but also the reconstruction of social relations and the restoration of the ecosystem. Nevertheless, it does not mean the new agrarian movement is going to cover up or neglect the class interest of farmers in the name of universal values or ecofriendly claims. On the contrary, it tries to integrate universal value and particular interest, to incorporate environmental issue with class issue, in order to form a force to resist the prevailing developmentalistic mentality and the rent-seeking practices in land planning policies.
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No.22  2016 春季
No.21  2015 秋季
No.20  2015 春季
No.19  2014 秋季
No.18  2014 春季
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