當期出版


研究論文  Research Article
page:59﹣86

在市場中實踐「西藏意識」: 印度、尼泊爾流亡藏人的難民經濟
Practicing “Tibetanness” in the Market Place: Refugee Economy of Exiled Tibetans in India and Nepal

作者
潘美玲
Author
Mei-Lin PAN
關鍵詞
流亡藏人、難民經濟、西藏意識、西藏志業、宗教倫理
Keywords
Exiled Tibetan, Refugee economy, “Tibetanness”, Tibetan cause, Religious ethics
摘要

在全球化的跨國移工或經濟移民的現象中,本文探討的是非自願移民的難民群體的生存策略與經濟運作機制。主要針對流亡藏人社群,因為其 難民的狀態,同時擔負著維繫西藏的文化使命,而發展出來的「西藏意識」(Tibetanness),從政治認同的面向拓展到市場上的經濟實踐,從而影響其生存策略與經濟活動的實踐。透過流亡藏人在印度的冬季毛衣貿易業,以及 在尼泊爾發展的西藏地毯產業,以多點民族誌與比較分析策略,檢視流亡藏人如何在這兩個產業市場當中實踐其「西藏意識」,從而構成西藏難民的經 濟特色。這種西藏特色有助於市場差異化策略的進行,但也構成了產業發展 的限制。印證了博蘭尼所指出市場鑲嵌在社會之中的運作,尤其流亡藏人社會 的發展要務,在於為西藏的家園尋求正義,並以維持認同與文化傳統為優先, 因此經濟的目的在於維生,是完成西藏志業的工具,從而對於資本主義式的 財富積累和壟斷式的擴張,產生了節制的力量,維繫了藏人在流亡處境下族群 團結的基礎。

Synopsis

This paper discusses exiled Tibetans as involuntary migrants, and their survival strategies and economic mechanism. Exiled Tibetans developed “Tibetanness” because they are refugees with responsibility to preserve Tibetan culture and tradition. “Tibetanness” has been derived from political identity, shaping exiled Tibetan’s survival strategies and economic practice. Winter sweater-selling business in India and Tibetan carpet industry in Nepal are two cases to demonstrate how exiled Tibetans exercise their “Tibetanness” in the refugee economy. To make a living is the major purpose of refugee economy and it also serves the Tibetan cause: to seek justice for Tibetans and to preserve identity and language. This study is based on multi-sited ethnography and comparative methods on exiled Tibetans in India and Nepal to understand the commonality and difference of “Tibetanness.” The result has confirmed Karl Polany’s theory that market is embedded in society. Exiled Tibetans have found their way to limit the development of capitalistic accumulation of wealth and competition, and to re-enforce their national solidarity.

No.26  2018 春季

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