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我們時代的法西斯主義
A Fascism for Our Time

作者
哈若圖寧著,陳春燕譯
Author
Harry HAROOTUNIAN, translated by Chun-yen CHEN
關鍵詞
法西斯主義、資本主義、寡頭治理、封建建制、民主、主體自主性、正常
Keywords
fascism, capitalism, oligarchy, feudal constitution, democracy, subjective autonomy, normalcy
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摘要

本文意欲探討,全球資本與新冠病毒大流行在沿循相同路徑發展後,於近日巧合匯聚,此一合體如何意外地揭露了美國政治、經濟、社會生活種種失效情況,而這又如何具現了美國政治結構中可能潛在的法西斯主義政治想像,我們又是否會在不久的將來看到此政治想像之落實。文章嘗試指出,諸多足以佐證法西斯主義的言論,加上我們所承續的憲法、體制傳統中公認的歷史弱點,兩相結合,驅動了不當的治理方式轉移,其趨勢十分近似一種威權政體,一種發生於民主社會內部的法西斯專制。本文重點不在於歷史上各法西斯主義例證在條件與內容上的親近關係,而是其形式之靈活:其形式如何順應不同時間向度與不同地方帶來的新挑戰,使其得以服務資本主義,將資本主義從其自身慣常製造的危機中解救出來。因此,法西斯主義形式應被視為資本主義機器內部的鬼魂。同時,本文也對近期一個自由主義式的詭辯提出質疑:此一論辯的主張是,美國社會此刻面臨的問題,起因為社會契約被破壞,而非社會契約的消失。本文立論則是,美國從未有過這樣的社會契約,而從不存在的東西便沒有被破壞的可能。法西斯主義的目的是維護秩序,亦即剝奪社會中的自主主體性──此一主體性能促成個人主義,且是一種認可、尊重其他主體個人性的個人主義。法西斯主義奪去自主主體性,便能排除資本主義歷史危機總不免會產生的各種干擾其資本積累的衝突。

Synopsis

The essay focuses on how the accidental convergence of global capital and the COVID pandemic, by traveling the same route, has inadvertently unveiled unraveling circumstances in our political, economic, and social life that easily point to the possible formation of a fascist political imaginary in the United States, if not its final realization in the near future. The essay seeks to show how the coming together of affirmative avowals attesting to the appearance of fascism and the acknowledged historic weaknesses of the received constitutional and institutional endowment have enabled the possibility of what very much looks like an unwanted transition to a form of authoritarian rule that resembles a fascist autocracy arising within a democratic society. The essay does not dwell on the kinship of conditions and content marking historical episodes of fascism but rather on the form’s aptitude for adapting to new challenges in different temporal registers and places, as it serves to save capitalism from itself and its habitual creation of crises. In this respect, the fascist form must be seen as the ghost in the capitalist machine. At the same time, the essay puts into question a recent liberal conceit: the proposition that the problem facing American society today is a broken social contract, rather than its absence. Hence, the implied argument of the essay is that America never had a social contract as such—and that something which does not exist is not breakable. Fascism’s purpose is pledged to the preservation of order, which means ridding society of the autonomous subjectivity that authorizes any individualism which would require recognition and respect for the equal claims of others to individuality, thereby removing the conflicts that historical crises in capitalism will always produce to disrupt its accumulation of capital.

No.31  2020 秋季

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No.29  2019 秋季

No.28  2019 春季

No.27  2018 秋季