當期出版


專題論文:文學論戰與記憶政治  Literary Debate and Memory Politics
page:47﹣72

冷戰在馬來與馬華文學場域的介入與衝擊(1950-1969)
Intervention and the Impact of the Cold War in Malay and Chinese Malaysian Literature (1950-1969)

作者
莊華興
Author
Chong Fah Hing
關鍵詞
冷戰、馬華文學、馬來文學、筆戰、文化思想鬥爭
Keywords
Cold War, Chinese Malaysian literature, Malay literature, Polemic, Cultural thought struggle
相關領域
   
摘要

戰後1950、1960年代見證了英帝國勢力的衰退,喚醒了馬新兩地各民族獨立建國的願望,中共勢力的崛起進一步使南洋華人分裂成擁共與擁蔣兩派。馬來族群在此時追求的是民族主義建國。在各種勢力的衝擊下,英殖民政府為了保護自身的經濟利益,不得不把權力下放給各民族右翼分子,左翼分子視之為新殖民主義,再次展開鬥爭。當美國於1949年意識到東南亞對其物資補給與戰略佈局的重要性時,遂把冷戰焦點轉移到東南亞區域,形成了左右意識形態的對立與競爭,連帶地對馬來與馬華文學生態構成衝擊。
1950年代初,在印度尼西亞獨立運動影響下,馬來文壇出現左傾的文學組織—「50年代作家行列」(Angkatan Sasterawan 50)。冷戰的介入進一步引起了該組織內部的分裂,終而掀開「文藝為社會」抑或「文藝為文藝」之論爭。
在馬華文學場域,《蕉風》雜誌在創刊初始便打著「純馬來亞化」的口號,就「馬來亞化」課題與新馬左翼文化界展開話語競爭。《銀星》副刊繼之與左傾現實派作者爆發論爭。本文欲
釐清兩個文學場域的筆戰所觸及的文化與意識形態問題,並嘗試了解文化冷戰如何主導論戰方向,以及它如何形塑馬來與馬華文學的發展軌跡。

Synopsis

The end of the Pacific War witnessed the decline of the British Empire in Singapore and Malaya. It had evoked the aspiration of the local peoples to establish a newly independent nation. Furthermore, the rise of the Chinese Communist Party had led to the Chinese community in Nanyang split into pro Communist and pro Nationalist factions. At this juncture, the Malay ethnic was putting their effort in pursuing a new nation through nationalism ideas and thoughts. With the contestation of various forces, the British colonial was forced to hand-over the power to the right-wing elements of various ethnic groups in
order to protect its economic interests in the colony. From the leftist point of view, this was
perceived as a move of neo-colonization, therefore they turned to arm struggle again. In 1949, United States began to realize the importance of Southeast Asia to its material supply and strategic planning in the region. The shifting of the Cold War to Southeast Asia eventually led to the confrontation and contestation between the left and right ideology. This situation had brought a profound impact to the Malay and the Chinese literary circle in the country.
The impacts of the Indonesian independence movement in the early 1950s had triggered the
establishment of a left-leaning literary organization in Malay literary circle, namely “The 1950s Writers Group” (Angkatan Sasterawan 50). The intervention of the Cold War also had caused a cleavage within the writers of ASAS 50, and eventually led to the polemic over the slogan of “Art for society” or “Art for art sake”.
In the Chinese Malaysian literary arena, the newly published magazine in 1955, called Chao
Foon proposed the slogan of “Pure Malayanization”, and had created the contestation with the left-wing cultural community over the discourse. Later, a literary supplement called Yingsing also set off the polemic between socialism-realist and modernist writers. This article aims to clarify the cultural and ideological issues mentioned in the polemics in both literary streams, and try to understand how the intervention of the Cold War dominated the direction of the polemic, and how it shaped the trajectory of the development of the Malay as well as Chinese Malaysian literature.

No.31  2020 秋季

No.30  2020 春季

No.29  2019 秋季

No.28  2019 春季

No.27  2018 秋季