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研究論文  Research Article
page:125﹣172

皮皮洛第‧瑞斯特與女性歇斯底里藝術:病態身體、自動科技、破壞美學
Pipilotti Rist and the Art of Female Hysteria: Morbid Body, Technical Automatism and Aesthetics of Destruction

作者
余瓊宜
Author
Chyong-Yi Yu
關鍵詞
皮皮洛第‧瑞斯特、歇斯底里、身體、錄像藝術、性別研究
Keywords
Pipilotti Rist, hysteria, body, video art, gender study
摘要

皮皮洛第‧瑞斯特(1962-,瑞士人)被稱為「最著名的瑞士女性藝術家」,在錄像藝術領域有非常傑出的表現,她的多媒體錄像作品從1980年代末期開始受到國際注目。瑞斯特以嘲諷幽默的藝術語言,將視覺藝術與流行文化的界限模糊化,性、性別、人體、尤其是女性的身體是她的作品常處理的主題,而她自己也常出現在其創作中。瑞斯特曾經多次談到,她的作品試圖以正面的形式表現「歇斯底里」的主題。

歇斯底里在19世紀末被認為是女性特有的疾病,傑-馬丁‧查寇特與西格蒙‧佛洛伊德對此病症的研究不僅在醫界引發轟動,其後也在超現實主義藝術與女性主義的範疇引起廣大迴響及反彈。什麼是歇斯底里?它又如何與為何在瑞斯特的藝術中成為一種美學的形式?本文以瑞斯特自我呈現的錄像作品為研究對象,聚焦於歇斯底里的主題與瑞斯特藝術的關連性,並深入闡析瑞斯特就此一主題在表現手法和概念上與超現實主義藝術傳統的同異性,再進一步以女性主義回應精神分析理論所延伸發展出的再現觀點,審視瑞斯特為什麼以自己的身體為展演主角,並藉以對再現女性的傳統提出批判與省思。


Synopsis

Pipilotti Rist(1962-, Swiss), “the best known female artist in Swiss”, is a prominent figure in video art. Her works of multimedia video has attracted international attentions since the late 1980s. Rist uses an individual artistic language of irony and humor to blur boundaries between the visual art and the popular culture. Sex, gender and human bodies, especially women bodies, are the motifs she prefers. Even her own body appears also often in her works. She mentioned several times that her works try to show “hysteria” in a positive light.

Hysteria was thought in the 19th century as a characteristic disease of women. Jean-Martin Charcot’s and Sigmund Freud’s research on it caused a sensation not only in the medical domain, but also subsequently in surrealism art and feminism. What is hysteria? Why and how does hysteria become an aesthetic form in Rist’s art. This paper focuses on the theme of hysteria and goes into a detailed study on the theme hysteria in Rist’s works of self-presentation: their styles and concepts will be scrutinized to find out the similarities and differences between Rist’s art and the tradition of the surrealism art. Based on the representation theory of the feminism, it will be analyzed why Rist uses her own body as an object in her works and what is her re-vision und re-thinking about the tradition of the women-representation.

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